Flood inundation is a frequent, widespread, and impactful hazard, which regularly causes damage to housing and infrastructure along with disruption to communities and businesses. Further,

flood risk is expected to increase in future, because of climate change through increased storminess and due to rapid urbanisation. To manage this risk, it is essential that we become more efficient at

flood risk management, which in New Zealand is an activity which is devolved to regional councils and, consequently, highly variable.